Genetic homogenization of indigenous sheep breeds in Northwest Africa

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A Nature Research Journal. Northwest-African sheep represent an ideal case-study for assessing the potential impact of genetic homogenization as a threat to the future of traditional breeds that are adapted to local conditions. We studied ten Algerian and Moroccan breeds of sheep, including three transboundary breeds, distributed over a large part of the Maghreb region, which represents a geographically and historically coherent unit. The sPCA analysis revealed that the major part of Morocco and the Northern part of Algeria were affected by the phenomenon, including most of the breeds considered.

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Radiocarbon dating is one of the most widely used scientific dating methods in archaeology and environmental science. It can be applied to most organic materials and spans dates from a few hundred years ago right back to about 50, years ago – about when modern humans were first entering Europe. For radiocarbon dating to be possible, the material must once have been part of a living organism. This means that things like stone, metal and pottery cannot usually be directly dated by this means unless there is some organic material embedded or left as a residue.

As explained below, the radiocarbon date tells us when the organism was alive not when the material was used. This fact should always be remembered when using radiocarbon dates. The dating process is always designed to try to extract the carbon from a sample which is most representative of the original organism. In general it is always better to date a properly identified single entity such as a cereal grain or an identified bone rather than a mixture of unidentified organic remains.

The radiocarbon formed in the upper atmosphere is mostly in the form of carbon dioxide.

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The Jacob Sheep breed is steeped in history with origins in the Middle East and is quite possibly the oldest sheep breed in the World, with historical references dating back to the Old Testament, Book of Genesis. The breed has evolved considerably since these early origins and today has become well established in the United Kingdom and indeed in many other parts of the world.

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Thomas, Limoges, Cedex France. P, RP Rabat, Morocco. All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its Supplementary Information files. The arrival of Neolithic culture in North Africa, especially domestic animals has been essentially documented from archaeological records. Through Network analysis and an original phylogenetically derived method, the connection proportions of each Moroccan breed to foreign ones were estimated, highlighting the strong links between Moroccan and Iberian breeds.

Their calculated expansion times were respectively 7, and 8, years B. This suggests that Neolithization was introduced by a double influence, from Iberia and from another route, maybe Oriental or Sub-Saharan. The consequence of the environmental changes encountered by founders from Iberia was tested using different neutrality tests. There are significant selection signatures at the level of Moroccan and European breeds settled in elevated altitudes, and an erosion of nucleotide diversity in Moroccan breeds living in arid areas.

The introduction of domesticated mammals in Northwest Africa was linked to a change in food production from hunting-gathering to farming 1. These changes were the result of cultural exchanges, followed by population movements well documented in Western Mediterranean 2. Recent researches conducted by several archaeological teams proposed, with a high accuracy, the different steps of the diffusion of Neolithic, since about sites have been studied and dated in the range of 12, Epipalaeolithic to 4, years B.

Indices of cereal and legume cultivation were attested at around 7, to 7, years B. It has been questioned whether the route of the migration was from south to north across the Gibraltar strait or the reverse 2 , 5.

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With Australia home to almost 74 million sheep, finding a ram that can produce woollier or fatter offspring can prove challenging for farmers. Department sheep breeding specialist Luke Stephen, who helped develop the app, said farmers were previously required to trawl a national database of around , sheep to find a suitable ram. Unlike horse-breeders where mares are brought in for a service, sheep farmers purchase the entire ram or its semen.

Sheep farmer Lachlan Woodhouse said he liked the idea of the app as he currently searches for rams through brochures and catalogues sent out by the ram breeders. Sheep farmer Richard Keniry said the app would help finetune the genetic selection process, while saving travel time. Plunging wool prices in recent years had resulted in farmers shifted the emphasis on producing more varieties suitable for meat.

Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. 1; Supplementary Table 1, Supplementary Material online) representing 3 wider Haplotypes were excluded from the phylogenetic dating analysis based on a testwise P.

Shaun the Sheep is a British children’s stop-motion animated television series spin-off of the Wallace and Gromit franchise. The series stars Shaun — a sheep previously featured in the short film A Close Shave and in the Shopper 13 short film from the Wallace and Gromit’s Cracking Contraptions series — and his madcap adventures around a small farm as the leader of his flock. It has been broadcast in countries globally.

The series consists of seven-minute episodes. The fifth series contains 20 episodes and was aired in the Netherlands from 1 December until 1 January [2] [3] [4] and in Australia on ABC Kids from 16 January until 1 May In the United States , a series of Shaun the Sheep shorts aired in between commercial breaks on Disney Channel starting with July 8, , although the series has not been on the network for a decade. The series inspired its own spin-off, Timmy Time , which follows the adventures of Shaun’s small cousin and is aimed at younger viewers.

A feature-length film, titled Shaun the Sheep Movie , was released theatrically in The second feature-length film, titled A Shaun the Sheep Movie: Farmageddon , was released theatrically on 18 October The series recently has migrated to Netflix for a sixth series, under the subtitle Adventures from Mossy Bottom. Shaun, an unusually clever sheep, lives with his flock at Mossy Bottom Farm the name being revealed in the fourth season , a traditional small northern English farm.

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